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Does The Asteroid Belt Hold Key To The Building Blocks Of Planets

September 27, 2017 by  
Filed under Around The Net

The asteroid belt may have started out empty, later becoming a “cosmic refugee camp” taking on leftovers of planetary formation from across the solar system, a new study finds.

The main asteroid belt, located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, makes up 0.05 percent the mass of Earth. The asteroids there can range greatly in mass, with the four largest ones — Ceres, Vesta, Pallas and Hygiea — holding more than half the belt’s mass.

To explain the dramatic range of sizes in the asteroid belt, previous models suggested that the primordial asteroid belt originally possessed a mass equal to at least that of Earth, and that its members had less disparity in mass. The gravitational pulls of the planets later helped whittle down this primordial belt, depleting asteroids of certain sizes more than others.  

However, these prior models of asteroid formation raised a question: how the belt could have lost more than 99.9 percent of its mass without losing all of it, said study lead author Sean Raymond, an astronomer at the University of Bordeaux in France.

“Our approach is the opposite. We asked the question, ‘Could the asteroid belt have been born empty?’,” Raymond told Space.com. “The answer is yes, effortlessly.”

The scientists developed computer models of an empty primordial asteroid belt to see whether leftovers from planetary formation could explain the belt’s current composition. The inner belt is dominated by dry S-type, or silicaceous, asteroids, which appear to be made of silicate materials and nickel iron and account for about 17 percent of known asteroids. The outer belt is dominated by water-rich C-type, or carbonaceous, asteroids, which consist of clay and stony silicate rocks and make up more than 75 percent of known asteroids.

The researchers found that an empty primordial asteroid belt could explain the mass and compositions of the current members of the asteroid belt. This model suggests that this zone between Mars and Jupiter is a repository of planetary leftovers, “a refugee camp housing objects that were kicked out of their homes and left to brave interplanetary space, finally settling onto stable orbits in the asteroid belt,” Raymond told Space.com. 

In this new model, the inner belt consists largely of rocky leftovers from the formation of the terrestrial planets — Earth, Mars, Venus and Mercury. In contrast, the outer belt is made up of remnants of the formation of the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn.

“In terms of composition, Jupiter and Saturn grew in a region that was much colder than where the rocky planets grew,” Raymond said. “Being colder, their cores could incorporate ice and other volatiles. The C-types are about 10 percent water, whereas the S-types are much drier, having started off in the much hotter terrestrial planet zone.”

These findings suggest that the asteroid belt “is a treasure trove — it must contain relics of the building blocks of all the planets,” Raymond said. “There must be pieces of terrestrial building blocks out in the asteroid belt, as well as leftovers from building the giant planets’ cores.”

Future research can further test how well the various models of asteroid-belt formation match reality. Raymond hopes the team’s new concept “will help keep people’s minds open to potentially drastically different origins stories for the solar system, and for extra-solar planets, too.”

Raymond and his colleague Andre Izidoro at the University of Bordeaux detailed their findings online Sept. 13 in the journal Science Advances.

Courtesy-Space

Astronomers Uncover Mystery Of The Magnetic World Of Galaxies

September 6, 2017 by  
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Astronomers have detected the magnetic field of a galaxy located a whopping 5 billion light-years from Earth. 

“This finding is exciting,” Sui Ann Mao, an astronomer from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Germany, said in a statement. “It is now the record holder of the most distant galaxy for which we have this magnetic-field information.”

Mao led the team that made the find. The researchers used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, a radio telescope network in New Mexico, to detect and characterize the magnetic field of the distant galaxy.

“This means that magnetism is generated very early in a galaxy’s life by natural processes, and thus that almost every heavenly body is magnetic,” study co-author Bryan Gaensler, a professor at the Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics at the University of Toronto, said in the same statement. “The implication is that we need to understand magnetism to understand the universe.”

Measuring the magnetic fields of other galaxies that are at different distances from Earth and are different ages can help astronomers better understand how cosmic magnetism evolves, study team members said. Since a faraway magnetic field can’t be detected directly, astronomers rely on observations of the magnetic fingerprint left on light passing through the field. This imprint is also known as Faraday rotation.

The astronomers discovered a quasar — an incredibly bright galactic core powered by a supermassive black hole — located beyond the galaxy being studied, along the same line of sight. As the bright light from the quasar passes through the galaxy’s magnetic field, it picks up the Faraday rotation fingerprint, providing astronomers with the information they need to learn more about the field’s strength and direction, the researchers said. 

“Nobody knows where cosmic magnetism comes from or how it was generated,” Gaensler said in the statement. “But now, we have obtained a major clue needed for solving this mystery, by extracting the fossil record of magnetism in a galaxy billions of years before the present day.”

Their findings were published today (Aug. 28) in the journal Nature Astronomy.

Courtesy-Space

Astronomers Gain Insight Into Black Hole With Powerful Space Explosion

August 2, 2017 by  
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An ultrapowerful, superfast explosion in space is providing new insight into how dying stars turn into black holes.

An international team of researchers looked at a gamma-ray explosion called GRB 160625B that brightened the sky in June 2016. Gamma-ray bursts are among the most powerful explosions in the universe, but they are typically tough to track because they are very short-lived (sometimes lasting just a few milliseconds). 

“Gamma-ray bursts are catastrophic events, related to the explosion of massive stars 50 times the size of our sun,” said Eleonora Troja, lead author of the new study and an assistant research scientist in astronomy at University of Maryland. “If you ranked all the explosions in the universe based on their power, gamma-ray bursts would be right behind the Big Bang.” [Record Breaking Gamma-Ray Burst Captured By Fermi (Video)]

“In a matter of seconds, the process can emit as much energy as a star the size of our sun would in its entire lifetime,” Troja said in a statement. “We are very interested to learn how this is possible.”

Two key findings emerged from the observations, gathered using several ground- and space-based telescopes. The first step was better model what happens as the dying star collapses. The data suggests that the black hole creates a strong magnetic field that initially overwhelms jets of matter and energy formed because of the explosion. Then, the magnetic field breaks down, the study authors said.

In the next phase, the magnetic field diminishes, allowing matter to dominate the jets. Before, scientists thought that jets could be dominated only by the magnetic field or matter — not both.

Another insight concerns what kind of radiation is responsible for the bright phase at the beginning of the burst, which astronomers call the “prompt” phase. Before, several types of radiation were considered, including so-called blackbody radiation (heat emission from an object) and inverse Compton radiation (which happens when accelerated particles transfer energy to photons), according to the statement. 

It turns out that a phenomenon called synchrotron radiation is behind the prompt phase. This kind of radiation happens when electrons accelerate in a curved or spiral pathway, propelled along by an organized magnetic field.

“Synchrotron radiation is the only emission mechanism that can create the same degree of polarization and the same spectrum we observed early in the burst,” Troja said. 

The fading afterglow of GRB 160625B, a gamma-ray burst recorded in June 2016. Here, data from Arizona State University’s Reionization And Transients Infrared (RATIR) camera, on a telescope at Mexico’s National Astronomical Observatory in Baja California, shows the burst from June 26 to Aug. 20, 2016.

“Our study provides convincing evidence that the prompt gamma-ray burst emission is driven by synchrotron radiation,” she added. “This is an important achievement because, despite decades of investigation, the physical mechanism that drives gamma-ray bursts had not yet been unambiguously identified.”

Gathering information about GRB 160625B required many telescopes to work together quickly. NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope first saw the explosion, and the ground-based Russia’s MASTER-IAC telescope, which is located at the Teide Observatory in Spain’s Canary Islands, quickly joined with observations in optical light.

MASTER-IAC’s observations were key to understanding the evolution of GRB 160625B’s magnetic field, the research team said. The magnetic field can influence polarized light (light waves that vibrate in a single plane) emanating from the burst. In a rare achievement, the telescope measured the proportion of polarized light to total light through almost the entire explosion.

“There is very little data on polarized emission from gamma-ray bursts. This burst was unique because we caught the polarization state at an early stage,” said study co-author Alexander Kutyrev, an associate astronomy research scientist at the University of Maryland and an associate scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.

“This is hard to do because it requires a very fast reaction time, and there are relatively few telescopes with this capability,” Kutyrev added. “This paper shows how much can be done, but to get results like this consistently, we will need new rapid-response facilities for observing gamma-ray bursts.”

Other participating telescopes included NASA’s Swift Gamma-ray Burst Mission (X-ray and ultraviolet), the multi-institution Reionization and Transient Infrared/Optical Project camera (at Mexico’s National Astronomical Observatory in Baja California), the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Very Large Array in New Mexico, and the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation’s Australia Telescope Compact Array.

The new research was detailed today (July 26) in the journal Nature.

Courtesy-Space

Can Companies Mine The Moon AT A Profit

May 25, 2017 by  
Filed under Around The Net

The first-ever private mining operation on the moon is scheduled to kick off in 2020, when a landing craft sent by Florida-based Moon Express will ferry a single scoop of lunar dirt and rocks back to Earth.

Unlike the three governments that have led lunar missions — the United States, the Soviet Union, and China — the owners of this private firm have something history-making in mind for that little ball of extraterrestrial soil: They plan to sell it.

“It will instantly become the most valuable and scarcest material on Earth,” says Bob Richards, the CEO of Moon Express. “We’ll make some of it available to scientific research. But we also plan to commoditize it ourselves.”

Moon Express is gearing up to become the first company to ever transport a commercial asset from space back to Earth. But it’s not alone.

Several ambitious startups are busily developing plans to launch mining operations on both the moon and asteroids, with initial proof-of-concept missions set to kick off over the next few years and more robust operations within a decade. China is a key player, too, along with a tiny, unlikely European upstart: the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

Those seeking to conquer celestial commodity markets are beckoned by the glittering wealth that could await them in space.

“We believe that the first trillionaires will be made from space resources,” says Richards.

Exactly which minerals will drive those fortunes remains to be seen.

The moon holds significant amounts of a special type of a futuristic fuel source called helium-3 — enough, some say, to meet all of Earth’s power demand for thousands of years providing scientists can master the fusion power technology to utilize it.

A fortune could be made by anyone able to capture and exploit one of the mountain-sized asteroids made of platinum or other precious metals thought to be orbiting the sun, or deposits of rare earth elements on the moon.

Others point to the potential for zero-gravity construction of super-massive colonizing spacecraft and mammoth floating structures using raw materials sourced from asteroids.

Most, however, are focused on a resource that’s commonplace on Earth: water.

Water, space entrepreneurs say, will be the key space commodity for an economy expanding into the solar system — both because it can sustain life as drinking water and breathable air, and because it can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen to make rocket fuel.

Sourcing water from space could, for example, turn the moon into a depot for more ambitious missions.

“Water is like the oil of the solar system,” said Richards. “The moon could become a gas station in the sky.”

In the near term, Moon Express is focused on providing relatively low-cost transport to the surface of the moon for commercial, private, academic, and government customers.

One client that’s already signed up is the moon-burial company Celestis, which offers to send cremated human remains to the surface of the moon for a starting price of $12,500.

In 2016 Moon Express became the first private company in history to receive permission from the US Federal Aviation Administration to travel beyond Earth’s orbit and land a craft on the moon.

The company is planning three lunar missions by the time it brings back the small scoop of lunar soil, between the size of a baseball and basketball, in 2020.

Selling part of that scoop to private interests — for example, as moon gems for jewelry for the ultra-rich — will set an important precedent. The international Outer Space Treaty of 1967 says no country can claim sovereignty over extraterrestrial territory. But in 2015 President Barack Obama signed a law granting private citizens the rights to resources recovered from space.

The company’s first mission, slated for this year, will be in part an attempt to win the Google Lunar XPrize. The competition offers $20 million to the first private company able to land a rover on the moon’s surface, travel 500 meters, and then broadcast hi-definition images back to Earth.

Another company fielding a team for the XPrize, which also plans to eventually tap moon water, is Japan’s ispace Inc.

In December, ispace signed a memorandum of understanding with Japan’s national space agency, JAXA, for the “mining, transport, and use of resources on the moon,” according to a company statement.

During an initial phase of operations, from 2018 through 2023, ispace will go prospecting on the moonscape, sending exploratory robots into lunar craters and caves to check for water. Production is planned to begin in 2024.

China is also eyeing moon resources — especially helium-3.

As an energy source, helium-3 is as alluring as it is elusive: a non-radioactive agent that wouldn’t produce dangerous waste. The isotope is released by the sun and carried through the cosmos on solar winds that are blocked by Earth’s atmosphere, but collect on the surface of the moon.

As a result, the moon is “so rich” in helium-3, it could “solve human beings’ energy demand for around 10,000 years at least,” a top Chinese scientific advisor to the country’s moon exploration program, Professor Ouyang Ziyuan, told the BBC.

 

One of the top proponents of lunar helium-3 is Harrison Schmitt, a geologist who walked on the moon during NASA’s Apollo 17 mission and wrote a 2006 book advocating lunar helium-3 mining called Return to the Moon.

Others, however, are deeply skeptical — even if the necessary fusion technology, which has long eluded researchers, is mastered.

“I do not see this as being an economic solution to Earth’s energy needs,” Ian Crawford of the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Birkbeck College, University of London, said in an email. “The problem is that the abundance is very low, of the order 10 parts per billion by mass in even the most abundant regions.”

Another potentially attractive lunar resource is the platinum group of metals, including iridium, palladium and platinum, which have special qualities that make them highly useful in electronic devices. Such elements, rare on earth, are thought to be bountiful on the moon.

Richards of Moon Express said it’s too soon to specify the most valuable resource on the moon.

“It would be speculative and predictive to say which specific element is going to be the game-changer,” he said. “Pick your favorite spice.”

For now, he says, the key target is water — which, to be sure, can be found on frozen asteroids circling the sun as well.

Two US companies, Planetary Resources and Deep Space Industries, are leading the charge into asteroid mining, largely with the aim of providing resources that other types of space missions will need.

Rick Tumlinson, chairman of Deep Space Industries, said his company plans to land its first prospector on an asteroid by 2020.

The company will use tiny scouts to explore and study prospective targets. When a prime asteroid has been located, a larger robot will land on it, bite out a chunk, and then use solar power to evaporate and capture water from the sample.

“Water, we believe, is relatively easy to harvest from asteroid materials,” said Tumlinson.

If all goes according to plan, “by the middle-20s, we’d be producing serious quantities of resources,” he said.

Planetary Resources is also focused on water.

“You can concentrate that solar energy and heat up the surface of the asteroid and literally bake off the water in the same way you’d bake a clay pot,” says CEO Chris Lewicki.

 

Both Lewicki and Tumlinson also point to the potential for supplying building materials in space, which could allow for the construction of super-massive floating structures that would be ungainly to launch from Earth.

In space, “you can build these huge structures we see in movies and science fiction,” said Lewicki. “The resource that will allow us to do that is the metal that’s on asteroids. We can use technology like 3D printing. We can print up a structure in space that never has to hold itself up on Earth, never has to take a violent rocket ride.”

As billionaires Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos explore ideas for colonizing space and Mars, someone, advocates of space mining say, will need to provide the raw materials, water and fuel the colonizers will need.

And while space mining might sound like science fiction, serious backers with deep pockets are taking notice.

A total of $1.8 billion was invested in space ventures in 2015 — more than in the prior 15 years combined, according to the Tauri Group consultancy. More than 50 venture capital firms invested in space deals in 2015, the most of any year, the group found.

The tiny European nation of Luxembourg has invested 25 million euros in Planetary Resources, and collaborated on the development of Prospector-X, the first spacecraft from Deep Space Industries.

The moon, said Richards, is like Earth’s 8th continent, and it’s largely unexplored.

“We’re like early pioneers,” he said, “looking at a whole new world.”

 

Courtesy-Fud

 

 

Astronomers Find X-Ray Tsunami Rolling Through Galaxy Cluster

May 11, 2017 by  
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A wave of hot gas twice as wide as the Milky Way galaxy roils the nearby Perseus galaxy cluster, a new study indicates.

The wave, which measures 200,000 light-years across, likely formed billions of years ago, after a neighboring cluster clipped Perseus, researchers said. You can watch the monster wave roll in this awesome NASA video.

“The wave we’ve identified is associated with the flyby of a smaller cluster, which shows that the merger activity that produced these giant structures is still ongoing,” lead author Stephen Walker, of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, said in a statement.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. For example, Perseus — which lies 240 million light-years away from Earth, in the constellation of the same name — spans a vast 11 million light-years.

Most of the observable matter within galaxy clusters is superheated gas that glows in X-ray wavelengths, study team members said. Observations by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and other instruments have revealed many interesting formations in Perseus’ glowing gas, including an odd, 200,000-light-year-long concave feature dubbed “the bay.”

The bay generates no emissions, so — unlike some other features in the massive gas field — its origins don’t trace back to activity of the supermassive black hole at the core of Perseus’ central galaxy, NGC 1275, study team members said. And the bay’s shape doesn’t match those predicted by computer models that simulate normal gas sloshing, the scientists added.

So, the researchers re-analyzed Chandra images of the bay, filtering them to highlight edges and other important details. Then, the scientists compared these enhanced observations to computer simulations of merging galaxy clusters performed by astrophysicist John ZuHone, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

“Galaxy cluster mergers represent the latest stage of structure formation in the cosmos,” said ZuHone, who’s not a member of the new study’s team. (His simulations are available to other researchers in an online catalog.)

“Hydrodynamic simulations of merging clusters allow us to produce features in the hot gas and tune physical parameters, such as the magnetic field,” ZuHone said in the same statement. “Then we can attempt to match the detailed characteristics of the structures we observe in X-rays.”

Such comparative work led the researchers to identify a likely birth scenario for the bay. Long ago, Perseus’ gas had settled into two separate components: an interior “cold” region with temperatures around 54 million degrees Fahrenheit (30 million degrees Celsius) and a surrounding area three times hotter, the idea goes.

Then, a smaller cluster about 1,000 times more massive than the Milky Way galaxy grazed Perseus, coming within 650,000 light-years or so of its core, researchers said. This near miss roiled Perseus’ gas significantly, generating a spiral that expanded outward from the “cold” interior region.

years after the cluster flyby, this spiral reached 500,000 light-years from Perseus’ center and began producing huge waves in the cluster’s outer reaches. These features are basically enormous versions of “Kelvin-Helmholtz waves,” which appear at the interface of two fluids that are moving at different velocities, the researchers said.

“We think the bay feature we see in Perseus is part of a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, perhaps the largest one yet identified, that formed in much the same way as the simulation shows,” Walker said. “We have also identified similar features in two other galaxy clusters, Centaurus and Abell 1795.”

The new study will appear in the June 2017 issue of the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Courtesy-Space

Monster Galaxy Cluster Sheds Light On Cosmic Microwave Background

March 28, 2017 by  
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One of the largest galaxy clusters ever seen shines bright in this image from the Hubble Space Telescope. Called RX J1347.5-1145, this cluster lies 5 billion light-years from Earth.

Hubble’s observations of this galaxy cluster helped astronomers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile to probe the secrets of the cosmos by watching how it interacts with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) — weak radiation left over from the Big Bang, when the universe as we know it was born.

The entire cosmos bears witness to the disruptive events surrounding the Big Bang. Marks left behind by the rapid expansion of space-time can be found by studying the universe’s most ancient light, the CMB. These 14 billion-year-old photons, or particles of light, now permeate the cosmos and can be used to learn about the universe via a phenomenon known as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect.

Microwave radiation is invisible to the human eye, but astronomers can detect it. The microwave photons that create the CMB travel through the universe to Earth. “On their journey to us, they can pass through galaxy clusters that contain high-energy electrons,” NASA officials said in a statement. Passing through areas containing high-energy electrons can give these ancient photons get a little energy boost.

“Detecting these boosted photons through our telescopes is challenging but important,” NASA officials said. “They can help astronomers to understand some of the fundamental properties of the universe, such as the location and distribution of dense galaxy clusters.”

After ALMA observed the CMB around the galaxy cluster RX J1347.5-1145 (shown in blue), astronomers combined that data with an image from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) to make this picture. Combining the visible-light image from Hubble with the invisible microwave data from ALMA helps astronomers understand how the CMB interacts with the galaxies inside the colossal cluster.

Courtesy-Space

Astronomers Find The Building Blocks Of Life On Ceres

February 23, 2017 by  
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The dwarf planet Ceres keeps looking better and better as a possible home for alien life.

NASA’s Dawn spacecraft has spotted organic molecules — the carbon-containing building blocks of life as we know it — on Ceres for the first time, a study published today (Feb. 16) in the journal Science reports.

And these organics appear to be native, likely forming on Ceres rather than arriving via asteroid or comet strikes, study team members said.

“Because Ceres is a dwarf planet that may still preserve internal heat from its formation period and may even contain a subsurface ocean, this opens the possibility that primitive life could have developed on Ceres itself,” Michael Küppers, a planetary scientist based at the European Space Astronomy Centre just outside Madrid, said in an accompanying “News and Views” article in the same issue of Science.

“It joins Mars and several satellites of the giant planets in the list of locations in the solar system that may harbor life,” added Küppers, who was not involved in the organics discovery.

The $467 million Dawn mission launched in September 2007 to study Vesta and Ceres, the two largest objects in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. 

Dawn circled the 330-mile-wide (530 kilometers) Vesta from July 2011 through September 2012, when it departed for Ceres, which is 590 miles (950 km) across. Dawn arrived at the dwarf planet in March 2015, becoming the first spacecraft ever to orbit two different bodies beyond the Earth-moon system.

During its time at Ceres, Dawn has found bizarre bright spots on crater floors, discovered a likely ice volcano 2.5 miles (4 km) tall and helped scientists determine that water ice is common just beneath the surface, especially near the dwarf planet’s poles.

The newly announced organics discovery adds to this list of achievements. The carbon-containing molecules — which Dawn spotted using its visible and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument — are concentrated in a 385-square-mile (1,000 square km) area near Ceres’ 33-mile-wide (53 km) Ernutet crater, though there’s also a much smaller patch about 250 miles (400 km) away, in a crater called Inamahari. 

And there could be more such areas; the team surveyed only Ceres’ middle latitudes, between 60 degrees north and 60 degrees south. 

“We cannot exclude that there are other locations rich in organics not sampled by the survey, or below the detection limit,” study lead author Maria Cristina De Sanctis, of the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Space Planetology in Rome, told Space.com via email.

Dawn’s measurements aren’t precise enough to nail down exactly what the newfound organics are, but their signatures are consistent with tar-like substances such as kerite and asphaltite, study team members said.

“The organic-rich areas include carbonate and ammoniated species, which are clearly Ceres’ endogenous material, making it unlikely that the organics arrived via an external impactor,” co-author Simone Marchi, a senior research scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, said in a statement. 

In addition, the intense heat generated by an asteroid or comet strike likely would have destroyed the organics, further suggesting that the molecules are native to Ceres, study team members said.

The organics might have formed via reactions involving hot water, De Sanctis and her colleagues said. Indeed, “Ceres shows clear signatures of pervasive hydrothermal activity and aqueous alteration,” they wrote in the new study.

Such activity likely would have taken place underground. Dawn mission scientists aren’t sure yet how organics generated in the interior could make it up to the surface and leave the signatures observed by the spacecraft.

“The geological and morphological settings of Ernutet are still under investigation with the high-resolution data acquired in the last months, and we do not have a definitive answer for why Ernutet is so special,” De Sanctis said.

It’s already clear, however, that Ceres is a complex and intriguing world — one that astrobiologists are getting more and more excited about.

“In some ways, it is very similar to Europa and Enceladus,” De Sanctis said, referring to ocean-harboring moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. 

“We see compounds on the surface of Ceres like the ones detected in the plume of Enceladus,” she added. “Ceres’ surface can be considered warmer with respect to the Saturnian and Jovian satellites, due to [its] distance from the sun. However, we do not have evidence of a subsurface ocean now on Ceres, but there are hints of subsurface recent fluids.” 

Courtesy-Fud

Will The U.S. And Russia Team Up For A Venus Mission?

January 19, 2017 by  
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Russia’s space program and NASA are working together on a mission to Venus that would investigate some of the scorching-hot planet’s biggest mysteries, including, perhaps, whether it harbors life.

An international team of scientists tasked with fleshing out the main goals of the mission, which is known as Venera-D, is wrapping up its work and will deliver its final report to NASA and the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Space Research Institute by the end of the month, said David Senske, of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

“Is this the mission that’s going to fly? No, but we’re getting there,” Senske, the U.S. co-chair of this “joint science-definition team,” told Space.com last month at the annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union, in San Francisco.

Venera-D is led by Russia, which has been developing the project for more than a decade. The mission would mark a return to once-familiar territory for the nation; Russia’s forerunner state, the Soviet Union, launched a number of probes to Venus from the early 1960s through the mid-1980s, as part of its Venera and Vega programs. (“Venera” is the Russian name for Venus.)

“Russia has always been interested in going back to Venus,” Senske said.

NASA got involved about three years ago, when Russia asked if the U.S. space agency would be interested in collaborating on the mission, Senske added.

The joint science-definition team arose out of those initial discussions. The team stood down shortly thereafter; Russia’s March 2014 annexation of Crimea prompted NASA to suspend most cooperation with Roscosmos, Russia’s federal space agency (with activities involving the International Space Station being the most prominent exception).

But the collaboration was up and running again by August 2015, Senske said, and the team met in Moscow that October. More meetings are planned, including a workshop this May that will inform decisions about the mission’s scientific instruments, he added.

Venera-D is a large-scale mission, comparable in scope to NASA “flagship” efforts such as the $2.5 billion Curiosity Mars rover, Senske said. The baseline concept calls for an orbiter that will study Venus from above for at least three years, plus a lander that will operate for a few hours on the planet’s surface.

Mission planners said they had originally hoped the lander could survive for 30 days; the “D” in Venera-D stands for “dolgozhivushaya,” which means “long lasting” in Russian. But this goal was ultimately deemed too difficult and costly, given the blistering temperatures on Venus’ surface, according to RussianSpaceWeb.com (which outlines the mission’s tortuous history in rich detail).

Data gathered by the orbiter should help scientists better understand the composition, structure and dynamics of Venus’ atmosphere, including why the planet’s air rotates so much faster than the surface does, a mysterious phenomenon known as super-rotation, Senske said.

The lander will collect further atmospheric information while descending, then study the composition and morphology of the Venusian surface after touching down.

Venera-D could incorporate additional components as well. Some ideas on the drawing board include a handful of small, relatively simple ground stations that would gather surface data for a month or so (putting the “D” back in Venera-D) and a solar-powered, uncrewed aerial vehicle that would ply the Venusian skies.

The surface of Venus is far too hot to support life as we know it, but temperatures are much more hospitable at an altitude of 31 miles (50 kilometers) or so. Furthermore, the planet’s atmosphere sports mysterious dark streaks that some astronomers have speculated might be signs of microbial life. The UAV could hypothetically investigate this possibility, sampling the air while cruising along.

Engineers have already been thinking about how to build such an aircraft. For example, the U.S. aerospace company Northrop Grumman and partner L’Garde Inc. have been researching a concept vehicle called the Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) for several years now.

It’s still too early to know exactly what Venera-D will look like, what it will do or when the mission will launch. A liftoff in 2025 or 2026 is possible under an “aggressive” time line, Senske said. “It depends when the Russians can get this into their federal space budget,” he said.

Some things are known, however. For instance, Russia will build the orbiter and the lander, and Venera-D will launch atop Russia’s in-development Angara A5 rocket, Senske said. If NASA remains involved in the mission — which is far from a given at this point — the U.S. space agency will likely contribute smaller items, such as individual scientific instruments.

“Russia is definitely in the driver’s seat,” Senske said. “NASA is the junior partner.”

Courtesy-Space

Will NASA Be Able To Mine Asteroids By 2025?

August 14, 2015 by  
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Asteroid mining could shift from sci-fi dream to world-changing reality a lot faster than you think.

Planetary Resources deployed its first spacecraft from the International Space Station last month, and the Washington-based asteroid-mining company aims to launch a series of increasingly ambitious and capable probes over the next few years.

The goal is to begin transforming asteroid water into rocket fuel within a decade, and eventually to harvest valuable and useful platinum-group metals from space rocks.

“We have every expectation that delivering water from asteroids and creating an in-space refueling economy is something that we’ll see in the next 10 years — even in the first half of the 2020s,” said Chris Lewicki, Planetary Resources president and chief engineer Chris Lewicki.

“After that, I think it’s going to be how the market develops,” Lewicki told Space.com, referring to the timeline for going after asteroid metals.

“If there’s one thing that we’ve seen repeat throughout history, it’s, you tend to overpredict what’ll happen in the next year, but you tend to vastly underpredict what will happen in the next 10 years,” he added. “We’re moving very fast, and the world is changing very quickly around us, so I think those things will come to us sooner than we might think.”

Planetary Resources and another company, Deep Space Industries, aim to help humanity extend its footprint out into the solar system by tapping asteroid resources. (Both outfits also hope to make a tidy profit along the way, of course.)

This ambitious plan begins with water, which is plentiful in a type of space rock known as carbonaceous chondrites. Asteroid-derived water could do far more than simply slake astronauts’ thirst, mining advocates say; it could also help shield them from dangerous radiation and, when split into its constituent hydrogen and oxygen, allow voyaging spaceships to fill up their fuel tanks on the go.

The technology to detect and extract asteroid water is not particularly challenging or expensive to implement, Lewicki said. Scientific spacecraft routinely identify the substance on celestial bodies, and getting water out of an asteroid could simply involve bagging up the space rock and letting the sun heat it up.

Carbonaceous chondrites also commonly contain metals such as iron, nickel and cobalt, so targeting these asteroids could allow miners to start building things off  Earth as well. That’s the logical next step beyond exploiting water, Lewicki said.

The “gold at the end of the rainbow,” he added, is the extraction and exploitation of platinum-group metals, which are rare here on Earth but are extremely important in the manufacture of electronics and other high-tech goods.

“Ultimately, what we want to do is create a space-based business that is an economic engine that really opens up space to the rest of the economy,” Lewicki said.

Developing off-Earth resources should have the effect of opening up the final frontier, he added.

“Every frontier that we’ve opened up on planet Earth has either been in the pursuit of resources, or we’ve been able to stay in that frontier because of the local resources that were available to us,” Lewicki said. “There’s no reason to think that space will be any different.”

Planetary Resources isn’t mining asteroids yet, but it does have some hardware in space. The company’s Arkyd-3R cubesat deployed into Earth orbit from the International Space Station last month, embarking on a 90-day mission to test avionics, software and other key technology.

Incidentally, the “R” in “Arkyd-3R” stands for “reflight.” The first version of the probe was destroyed when Orbital ATK’s Antares rocket exploded in October 2014; the 3R made it to the space station aboard SpaceX’s robotic Dragon cargo capsule in April. [Antares Rocket Explosion in Pictures]

Planetary Resources is now working on its next spacecraft, which is a 6U cubesat called Arkyd-6. (One “U,” or “unit,” is the basic cubesat building block — a cube measuring 4 inches, or 10 centimeters, on a side. The Arkyd-3R is a 3U cubesat.)

The Arkyd-6, which is scheduled to launch to orbit in December aboard SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket, features advanced avionics and electronics, as well as a “selfie cam” that was funded by a wildly successful Kickstarter project several years ago. The cubesat will also carry an instrument designed to detect water and water-bearing minerals, Lewicki said.

The next step is the Arkyd 100, which is twice as big as the Arkyd-6 and will hunt for potential mining targets from low-Earth orbit. Planetary Resources aims to launch the Arkyd-100 in late 2016, Lewicki said.

After the Arkyd 100 will come the Arkyd 200 and Arkyd 300 probes. These latter two spacecraft, also known as “interceptors” and “rendezvous prospectors,” respectively, will be capable of performing up-close inspections of promising near-Earth asteroids in deep space.

If all goes according to plan, the first Arkyd 200 will launch to Earth orbit for testing in 2017 or 2018, and an Arkyd 300 will launch toward a target asteroid — which has yet to be selected — by late 2018 or early 2019, Lewicki said.

“It is an ambitious schedule,” he said. But such rapid progress is feasible, he added, because each new entrant in the Arkyd series builds off technology that has already been demonstrated — and because Planetary Resources is building almost everything in-house.

“When something doesn’t work so well, we don’t have a vendor to blame — we have ourselves,” Lewicki said. “But we also don’t have to work across a contractural interface and NDAs [non-disclosure agreements] and those sorts of things, so that we can really find a problem with a design within a week or two and fix it and move forward.”

For its part, Deep Space Industries is also designing and building spacecraft and aims to launch its first resource-harvesting mission before 2020, company representatives have said.

Extracting and selling asteroid resources is in full compliance with the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, Lewicki said.

But there’s still some confusion in the wider world about the nascent industry and the rights of its players, so he’s happy that the U.S. Congress is taking up the asteroid-mining issue. (The House of Representatives recently passed a bill recognizing asteroid miners’ property rights, and the Senate is currently considering the legislation as well.)

“I think it’s more of a protection issue than it is an actual legal issue,” Lewicki said. “From a lawyer’s interpretation, I think the landscape is clear enough. But from an international aspect, and some investors — I think they would like to see more certainty.”

Courtesy-Space

 

NASA Testing Virtual Reality Smart Glasses

March 23, 2015 by  
Filed under Consumer Electronics

NASA is testing virtual reality smart glasses that may one day assist astronauts as they travel to an asteroid or even Mars.

The space agency is using glasses from Osterhout Design Group (ODG), a San Francisco-based company that develops wearables for enterprises and government use. NASA engineers and astronauts are set to test the company’s smart glasses, which are equipped with augmented reality and virtual reality technologies. The glasses are being tested using NASA applications and software.

“The intended purpose and usefulness of glasses like this are unlimited,” said Jay Bolden, a NASA spokesman, in an email to Computerworld. “Advanced glasses could aid in navigation, where cockpit displays are broadcast on the goggles in much the same way fighter pilot heads up displays operate today.”

Bolden also noted that astronauts on a journey to an asteroid or Mars could use the smart glasses to access chart, map and technical information, instead of having to carry many pounds of technical journals and papers with them.

“For a two-hour flight on a 737 from Cleveland to Dallas, each pilot carries 15 pounds of manuals and that weight isn’t really a big deal in the grand scheme,” he noted. “However, for a multiple-week mission to an asteroid or the moon, or a multi-year mission to Mars, every pound saved means additional life-critical supplies — food, water, oxygen, or fuel — can be shipped in their place.”

The smart glasses also could give more information to NASA engineers and scientists working on Earth.

“Real time applications also include the ability for ground support teams to see first hand what astronauts discover and video,” Bolden said. “Instead of bringing a 50-pound boulder back for ground analysis, the astronaut can use glasses to scan, measure ‎and catalog where it was found and then chip off a 5-pound sample for ground analysis.”

 

 

NASA Discovers Mysterious Spot On Ceres

January 28, 2015 by  
Filed under Around The Net

A strange, flickering white blotch found on the dwarf planet Ceres by a NASA spacecraft has scientists scratching their heads.

The white spot on Ceres in a series of new photos taken on Jan. 13 by NASA’s Dawn spacecraft, which is rapidly approaching the round dwarf planet in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. But when the initial photo release on Monday (Jan. 19), the Dawn scientists gave no indication of what the white dot might be.

“Yes, we can confirm that it is something on Ceres that reflects more sunlight, but what that is remains a mystery,” Marc Rayman, mission director and chief engineer for the Dawn mission, told Space.com in an email.

The new images show areas of light and dark on the face of Ceres, which indicate surface features like craters. But at the moment, none of the specific features can be resolved, including the white spot.

“We do not know what the white spot is, but it’s certainly intriguing,” Rayman said. “In fact, it makes you want to send a spacecraft there to find out, and of course that is exactly what we are doing! So as Dawn brings Ceres into sharper focus, we will be able to see with exquisite detail what [the white spot] is.”

Ceres is a unique object in our solar system. It is the largest object in the asteroid belt and is classified as an asteroid. It is simultaneously classified as a dwarf planet, and at 590 miles across (950 kilometers, or about the size of Texas), Ceres is the smallest known dwarf planet in the solar system.

The $466 million Dawn spacecraft is set to enter into orbit around Ceres on March 6. Dawn left Earth in 2007 and in the summer of 2011, it made a year-long pit stop at the asteroid Vesta, the second largest object in the asteroid belt.

While Vesta shared many properties with our solar system’s inner planets, scientists with the Dawn mission suspect that Ceres has more in common with the outer most planets. 25 percent of Ceres’ mass is thought to be composed of water, which would mean the space rock contains even more fresh water than Earth. Scientists have observed water vapor plumes erupting off the surface of Ceres, which may erupt from volcano-like ice geysers.

The mysterious white spot captured by the Dawn probe is one more curious feature of this already intriguing object.

Courtesy-Space

Could Ceres Be The Home To E.T.?

December 24, 2014 by  
Filed under Around The Net

A NASA probe is about to get the first up-close look at a potentially habitable alien world.

In March 2015, NASA’s Dawn spacecraft will arrive in orbit around the dwarf planet Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Ceres is a relatively warm and wet body that deserves to be mentioned in the same breath as the Jovian moon Europa and the Saturn satellite Enceladus, both of which may be capable of supporting life as we know it, some researchers say.

“I don’t think Ceres is less interesting in terms of astrobiology than other potentially habitable worlds,” Jian-Yang Li, of the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona, said Thursday (Dec. 18) during a talk here at the annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union.

Life as we know it requires three main ingredients, Li said: liquid water, an energy source and certain chemical building blocks (namely, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur).

The dwarf planet Ceres — which is about 590 miles (950 kilometers) wide — is thought to have a lot of water, based on its low overall density (2.09 grams per cubic centimeter; compared to 5.5 g/cubic cm for Earth). Ceres is likely a differentiated body with a rocky core and a mantle comprised of water ice, researchers say, and water-bearing minerals have been detected on its surface.

Indeed, water appears to make up about 40 percent of Ceres’ volume, Li said.

“Ceres is actually the largest water reservoir in the inner solar system other than the Earth,” he said. However, it’s unclear at the moment how much, if any, of this water is liquid, he added.

As far as energy goes, Ceres has access to a decent amount via solar heating, since the dwarf planet lies just 2.8 astronomical units (AU) from the sun, Li said. (One AU is the distance between Earth and the sun — about 93 million miles, or 150 million km). Europa and Enceladus are much farther away from our star — 5.2 and 9 AU, respectively.

Both Europa and Enceladus possess stores of internal heat, which is generated by tidal forces. This heat keeps the ice-covered moons’ subsurface oceans of liquid water from freezing up, and also drives the eruption of water-vapor plumes on Enceladus (and probably Europa as well; researchers announced last year that NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope spotted water vapor erupting from the Jupiter moon in December 2012).

Intriguingly, scientists announced the discovery of water-vapor emission from Ceres — which may also possess a subsurface ocean — earlier this year.

Ceres’ plumes may or may not be evidence of internal heat, Li said. For example, they may result when water ice near Ceres’ surface is heated by sunlight and warms enough to sublimate into space.

“Right now, we just don’t know much about the outgassing on Ceres,” Li said.

Dawn should help bring Ceres into much clearer focus when it reaches the dwarf planet this spring. The spacecraft, which orbited the huge asteroid Vesta from July 2011 through September 2012, will map Ceres’ surface in detail and beam home a great deal of information about the body’s geology and thermal conditions before the scheduled end of its prime mission in July 2015.

Ground-based instruments should also play a role in unveiling Ceres. For example, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, or ALMA — a huge system of radio dishes in Chile — has the ability to probe deeper than Dawn, going into Ceres’ subsurface and shedding more light on the dwarf planet’s composition and thermal properties, Li said.

“This is highly complementary to the Dawn mission,” he said.

Ceres’ relative proximity to Earth also makes it an attractive target for future space missions, Li added.

Courtesy-Space

Did The Dinosaur Killing Asteroid Create Acid Rain?

March 13, 2014 by  
Filed under Uncategorized

The oceans soured into a deadly sulfuric-acid stew after the huge asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs, a new study suggests.

Eighty percent of the planet’s species died off at the end of the Cretaceous Period 65.5 million years ago, including most marine life in the upper ocean, as well as swimmers and drifters in lakes and rivers. Scientists blame this mass extinction on the asteroid or comet impact that created the Chicxulub crater in the Gulf of Mexico.

A new model of the disaster finds that the impact would have inundated Earth’s atmosphere with sulfur trioxide, from sulfate-rich marine rocks called anhydrite vaporized by the blast. Once in the air, the sulfur would have rapidly transformed into sulfuric acid, generating massive amounts of acid rain within a few days of the impact, according to the study, published today (March 9) in the journal Nature Geoscience.

The model helps explain why most deep-sea marine life survived the mass extinction while surface dwellers disappeared from the fossil record, the researchers said. The intense acid rainfall only spiked the upper surface of the ocean with sulfuric acid, leaving the deeper waters as a refuge. The model could also account for another extinction mystery: the so-called fern spike, revealed by a massive increase in fossil fern pollen just after the impact. Ferns are one of the few plants that tolerate ground saturated in acidic water, the researchers said.

The Chicxulub impact devastated the Earth with more than just acid rain. Other killer effects included tsunamis, a global firestorm and soot from burning plants. [The 10 Best Ways to Destroy Earth]

The ocean-acidification theory has been put forth before, but some scientists questioned whether the impact would have produced enough global acid rain to account for the worldwide extinction of marine life. For example, the ejected sulfur could have been sulfur dioxide, which tends to hang out in the atmosphere instead of forming aerosols that become acid rain.

Lead author Sohsuke Ohno, of the Chiba Institute of Technology in Japan, and his co-authors simulated the Chicxulub impact conditions in a lab, zapping sulfur-rich anhydrite rocks with a laser to mimic the forces of an asteroid colliding with Earth. The resulting vapor was mostly sulfur trioxide, rather than sulfur dioxide, the researchers found. In Earth’s atmosphere, the sulfur trioxide would have quickly combined with water to form sulfuric acid aerosols. These aerosols played a key role in quickly getting sulfur out of the sky and into the ocean, the researchers said. The tiny droplets likely stuck to pulverized silicate rock debris raining down on the planet, thus removing sulfuric acid from the atmosphere in just a matter of days.

“Our experimental results indicate that sulfur trioxide is expected to be the major sulfide component in the sulfur oxide gas released during the impact,” Ohno told Live Science in an email interview. “In addition to that, by the scavenging or sweeping out of acid aerosols by coexisting silicate particles, sulfuric acid would have settled to the ground surface within a very short time,” Ohno said.

Courtesy-Space

NASA Wants Help Putting Robots On The Moon

January 22, 2014 by  
Filed under Around The Net

NASA is seeking help in creating a new robotic rover that will deliver cargo to the surface of the moon.

In an effort to advance technologies needed to get astronauts to an asteroid orMars , NASA wants to get back to the moon. The space agency needs robotic technology to help them get there.

The robotic machine NASA wants to build must be able to ferry cargo weighing 66 pounds to 1,102 pounds to various lunar sites.

The space agency is seeking proposals from the private sector and plans to create a partnership to build robotic a lunar lander..

The program is dubbed Lunar CATALYST, for Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown.

“As NASA pursues an ambitious plan for humans to explore an asteroid and Mars, U.S. industry will create opportunities for NASA to advance new technologies on the moon,” said Greg Williams, NASA’s deputy associate administrator for the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. “[This] will help us advance our goals to reach farther destinations.”

NASA noted that, in a partnership, the agency would be able to contribute the technical expertise of NASA staff, access to NASA center test facilities, equipment loans, and software for lander development and testing.

NASA will host a pre-proposal teleconference on Jan. 27 to giving companies a chance to ask questions about the program.

Proposals are due by March 17. The winners are expected to be announced in April.

 

NASA’s NEOWISE Takes First Photos In Over Two Years

December 24, 2013 by  
Filed under Computing

A NASA asteroid-hunting spacecraft has opened its eyes in preparation for a renewed mission, beaming home its first images in more than 2.5 years.

The Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer spacecraft, or NEOWISE, has taken its first set of test images since being reactivated in September after a 31-month-long hibernation, NASA officials announced today (Dec. 19). The space agency wants NEOWISE to resume its hunt for potentially dangerous asteroids, some of which could be promising targets for future human exploration.

“The spacecraft is in excellent health, and the new images look just as good as they were before hibernation,” Amy Mainzer, principal investigator for NEOWISE at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., said in a statement. [Photos: Asteroids in Deep Space]

“Over the next weeks and months we will be gearing up our ground-based data processing and expect to get back into the asteroid-hunting business, and acquire our first previously undiscovered space rock, in the next few months,” Mainzer added.

NEOWISE began its scientific life as WISE, which launched to Earth orbit in December 2009 on a 10-month mission to scan the entire sky in infrared light. WISE catalogued about 560 million celestial objects, ranging from faraway galaxies to nearby asteroids and comets, NASA officials have said.

WISE ran out of hydrogen coolant in October 2010, making two of its four infrared detectors inoperable. But NASA didn’t shut the probe down at this point; rather, the agency granted a four-month mission extension known as NEOWISE, which focused on hunting asteroids. (The satellite could still spot nearby objects with its other two detectors, which did not have to be super-cooled).

NEOWISE discovered more than 34,000 asteroids and characterized 158,000 space rocks before being shut down in February 2011, NASA officials said.

And the spacecraft is now gearing up for another three-year space-rock hunt, partly to help find potential targets for NASA’s ambitious asteroid-capture project. This “Asteroid Initiative,” which was announced in April, seeks to drag a near-Earth asteroid to a stable orbit around the moon, where it would be visited by astronauts using the agency’s Space Launch System rocket and Orion crew vehicle.

The plan represents a way to meet a major goal laid out by President Barack Obama, who in 2010 directed NASA to get astronauts to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025, then on to the vicinity of Mars by the mid-2030s.

NEOWISE employs a 16-inch (40 centimeters) telescope and infrared cameras to find previously unknown asteroids and gauge the size, reflectivity and thermal properties of space rocks, NASA officials said.

“It is important that we accumulate as much of this type of data as possible while the spacecraft remains a viable asset,” said Lindley Johnson, NASA’s NEOWISE program executive in Washington. “NEOWISE is an important element to enhance our ability to support the [asteroid] initiative.”

Courtesy-Space

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